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SOLAR/1029-79/04 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



DESIGN CONSTRUCTION 
APRIL 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



.NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION 
APRIL 1979 
I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Design Construction site is a single-family residence in Bigfork, Montana. 
The home has approximately 1800 square feet of conditioned space. Solar 
energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water 
(DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a 
gross area of 792 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 45 
degrees to the horizontal. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar 
energy from the collector array to storage and from storage to the space 
heating and hot water loads. This water is drained from the collector when 
the collector pump is not operating. Solar energy is stored in a 1400-gallon 
water tank located in the conditioned space. The cylindrical tank has 6-inch 

concrete walls with 2-inch expanded polyurethane insulation. Preheated city 
water is stored in a 65-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient 
to satisfy the space heating load, an electrical heating element in the 
boiler provides auxiliary energy for space heating. Similarly, an electrical 
heating element in the DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water heating. 
Solar energy in the storage tank is supplemented by auxiliary energy provided 
by a hydro-heater fireplace which has a heat-exchanger water jacket around 
the chimney. When the fireplace is used, water is circulated from the storage 
tank through the fireplace and chimney heat exchanger, thereby accumulating 
additional energy which is returned to the storage tank. Energy from the 
storage tank is transferred to the DHW tank through an in-tank heat exchanger. 
Hot water used for space heating is passed from storage through the electric 
boiler and then through a four-zone hydronic heating system. Two fans are 
installed in the small enclosed chamber above the fireplace in which the 
fireplace pump (P4) and the fireplace control sensor are located. These fans 
are used to cool the chamber ambient and to circulate the warm chamber air 
into the living space. Both fans operate in parallel with the fireplace 
pump. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has four modes of solar 
operation, each of which is independent of the others. 



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Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 9°F between the control sensor located in the collector and 
the control sensor in the storage tank. Water is circulated from the storage 
tank through the collector and back to the tank. This circulation continues 
until the temperature difference between the two control sensors decreases to 
3°F, at which point the circulating pump turns off. When the pump stops 
operating, water is drained from the collector and returned to the storage 
tank. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when any of the four 
zones demand space heating. The thermostat of the zone demanding heat will 
activate the solenoid-operated control valve for that zone. The thermostat 
will also activate the circulating pump to allow heated water to circulate 
from the storage tank, through the boiler, to the appropriate zone (via its 
control valve) and back to the storage tank. Water continues to circulate as 
long as any zone demands heat. The electric boiler will provide auxiliary 
energy if the temperature of the water circulating through the boiler drops 
below 110°F (set point). When the space heating demand is satisfied, the 
circulating pump turns off and all open-zone control valves close. 

Mode 3 - Storage- to-DHW Heat Exchanger : This mode activates when the tempera- 
ture difference between a control sensor in the storage tank and a control 
sensor on the surface of the DHW tank reaches 9°F and terminates when the 
temperature difference drops to 5°F. If the water temperature in the hot 
water tank falls below the setting of its thermostat, the electric immersion 
heater turns on to provide auxiliary energy to the water in the hot water 
tank. This mode also terminates if the temperature in the storage tank, as 
indicated by another control sensor in the storage tank, falls below 80°F 
(set point). 

Mode 4 - Fireplace-to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 9°F between a control sensor located in the fireplace and 
another control sensor in the storage tank. (This occurs when the fireplace 

is being used.) The pump turns on to circulate water from the storage tank 
through the fireplace and the chimney heat exchanger, thereby accumulating 



energy which is returned to storage. This mode continues until the tempera- 
ture difference between the two control sensors drops to 3°F, at which point 
the pump turns off and the mode terminates. Both fans in the enclosed chamber 
above the fireplace also operate in parallel with the pump while in this mode. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in April and the solar energy system operated continuously 
during the month. Solar energy satisfied 57 percent of the DHW requirements 
and 61 percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system 
provided an electrical energy savings of 4.8 million Btu. Flow sensor anomaly 
caused the calculated space heating load to be higher than it actually ts-'for 
the first 11 days of the month. During the remainder of the month, the flow 
had to be estimated during intermittent failure of the same sensor. These 
anomalies also contributed to the erroneously high value for storage effi- 
ciency. The performance factors are discussed below and presented in the 
accompanying report forms. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
27.5 million Btu for a daily average of 1157 Btu per square foot. This was 
below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during April of 1612 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 
of 45 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during 
April was 41 °F as compared with the long-term average for April of 42°F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
681, as compared with the long-term average of 690. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During April the solar energy system performed approximately the same 
as expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy 
collected was 8.2 million Btu versus an estimated 5.8 million Btu. Solar 
energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected 
would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 5.0 million Btu. 
System total solar fraction was 60 percent versus an estimated 71 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of April was 27.5 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating, the total insolation amounted to 20.6 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of April was 8.2 million Btu, resulting 
in a collector array efficiency of 30 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 5.1 million 
Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to storage was 3.1 
million Btu. This loss represented 38 percent of the energy collected. 
Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.12 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 5.1 million Btu and auxiliary 
energy contribution to storage from the fireplace was 0.87 million Btu. There 
were 10.5 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating 
subsystems. The storage efficiency was 189 percent: This is calculated as 
the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in 
stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage tempera- 
ture for the month was 134°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 2.3 million Btu of solar energy, 0.73 

million Btu of auxiliary energy from storage and 0.77 million Btu of auxiliary 
electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load of 1.7 million Btu. The solar 
fraction of this load was 57 percent. Losses from the DHW subsystem were 2.1 

million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.10 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 2.2 million Btu. A daily 



average of 70 gallons of DHW was consumed at an average temperature of 149°F 
delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 2.7 million Btu of 
solar energy and 1.8 million Btu of auxiliary energy from storage in order to 
satisfy a space heating load of 4.4 million Btu. The solar fraction of this 
load was 61 percent. Losses from the space heating subsystem were 0.069 
million Btu. The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.039 million 
Btu of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 2.6 
million Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

Problems with the flowmeter (W400) of the storage/space heating loop continued 
throughout the month. A Boeing site visit on April 11 resulted in removal of 
debris in the meter. This debris caused the flowmeter to stick intermittently 
and to give erroneous high readings. However, on April 14 the same meter 
intermittently indicated zero flow even through data shows that the related 
pump (P3) was operating. Sensor failure occurs on approximately 28 percent of 
the scans when flow does occur. An estimated flow value was used on the scans 
where W400 failed. Therefore, performance factors derived from this flow 
(energy output from storage and heating load) have higher values than actual 
readings during the first 11 days of the month and are based, in part, on 
estimated flows during the remainder of the month. 

Storage efficiency continued to exceed 100 percent by a considerable amount 
and contributed to the high value for energy output from storage (discussed 
above). Storage efficiency was 137 percent for the portion of the month 
following the flowmeter repair on April 11. Analysis will continue in order 
to determine the causes of the storage energy imbalance. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a net electrical energy savings of 4.8 
million Btu. The DHW subsystem provided an electrical energy savings of 2.2 
million Btu, while the space heating subsystem contributed an electrical 
energy savings of 2.6 million Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

The flow sensor (W400) in the storage/space heating loop must be fixed. 
Boeing has not scheduled a site visit at this time. 



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